Three Basic Types of Septic Systems
Conventional-Gravity Flow System
These are the most basis and typically also the oldest. They consist of tank(s), disposal field(s) and piping that connect the two as well as to the structure. Basic function is separating out the solids in the tank(s) with minimal disinfection then moving the effluent liquids by gravity to the disposal field(s) at a lower depth in the ground.
Low Pressure Dosing System or “LPD”
These are engineered systems that are designed with multiple chambers in the tank or tanks that separate the solids from liquids. The last chamber has a small electrical system typically with an alarm box, pump and on/off float switches for pump or alarm. Which function is to eject the effluent liquids through smaller PVC drip lines that are buried in the ground in a series of multiple trenches and sometimes fields. These systems can have fields that are close to or far away from, as well as above or below the grade of the tank. These are medium disinfection systems.
Aerobic and Anaerobic Systems
For the most part this are the most disinfecting and engineered systems around. Their approach are polar opposites of one another but basic functions are similar. Aerobic meaning requiring air and Anaerobic meaning absence of air. In these systems you will find tanks, PVC parts, electrical control panels with alarms, timers and sensors that regulate the overall function of the system, water and or air pumps, valves or switches and back-flushing controls, drip or sprinkler field(s), filters and or filtration devices and sometimes chemical additives. These systems are required by law and their local Governing Authorities to be maintained by a Licensed Maintenance Provider. The main objective is the disinfecting the effluent before it reaches the disposal process either with or without air.
Keep in mind Texas is not limited to just these systems. There are many different types of onsite wastewater septic systems. This is just a list of the more common types and even they have hybrid forms and figures.
Every system is different in some way but none of them are resistant to problems and failure. Central Texas is one of best places in the country but also prone to some of the toughest and harshest living conditions. Texas is also dense in the number of active septic systems both urban and rural. They all have to with stand the test of time and Texas outdoor elements.
By not maintaining your system properly the results could be costly or devastating. Preventive maintenance is the cheapest and most effective way insure longevity in the life of any septic system.